“Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme” (ILCS)


1.            The practice of carrying night-soil on the heads from dry latrines by scavengers has been in existence for centuries in India.  It was felt that the abolition of manual scavenging was essential to restore human dignity among the scavengers.  The Central Government, therefore, adopted a three-pronged strategy to address the issue:-


·                    Legislative back up to prohibit construction of dry latrines and employment of manual scavengers in the form of 'The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993;


·                    Introduction of Centrally Sponsored Integrated low Cost Sanitation Scheme (ILCS) which envisages conversion of dry latrines into water seal twin-pit sanitary latrines.


·                     Centrally Sponsored Self-Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavenger (SRMS) being implemented by M/o Social Justice & Empowerment to rehabilitate the liberated Manual scavengers.



2.                  Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme (ILCS)


2.1        Background of ILCS:


& later through Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.

·        From1989-90:-   Transferred to  Ministry of Urban Development &   Poverty


                                   Alleviation / Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty



2.2       The ILCS Scheme was implemented till December 2007 under the earlier    guidelines with the following components:



2.3       Components of the earlier integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme (ILCS)






2.4       Pattern of Assistance:


The HUDCO was providing loan and a mix of subsidy from the Central Government in a synchronised manner as per the following financing pattern.


Category                Subsidy                  Loan                           Beneficiary



EWS                       45%                         50%                         5%

LIG                          25%                         60%                                15%

MIG/HIG                  Nil                            75%                                25%



The    unit cost for different categories of sanitary latrines was as follows:-


                                    5          user unit                      Rs.4000.00

                                    10        user unit                      Rs.6000.00

                                    15        user unit                      Rs.7000.00






2.5             Details of Budget Allocation and Expenditure during 10th Five year Plan under earlier ILCS Scheme.


The details of Budget Allocation and Expenditure incurred during 10th Five year Plan under ILCS were as follows:


(Rs. In Crores)




Actual Expenditure






































3.         Constraints


·        In the absence of subsidy for super-structure portion, the units were seldom completed and remained unutilized.


·        In the congested areas, due to non-availability of sufficient space, the individual latrines could not be constructed with twin pits.


·        Poor loan recovery from individuals. State Governments were reluctant to provide Government guarantee for securing HUDCO loan.


·        The Scheme was confined to the urban areas of the country and that too for the towns with population of less than 5 lakhs.


·        Even the subsidy being provided to the EWS families was only 45% which was much on the lower side for the beneficiaries of the weaker section of the society which made the scheme less demanding.



    4.  Taking into account the above constraints inherent in the scheme, the    same was   revised with the approval of the            Cabinet in January 2008 to make it more attractive and implementable. 



4.1       The salient features of the revised guidelines are as follows:  


·        The objective of the Scheme is to convert/ construct low cost sanitation units through sanitary two pit pour flush latrines with superstructures and appropriate variations to suit local conditions (area specific latrines) and  construct new latrines where EWS Household have no latrines.


·        The scheme is on ‘All Town’ coverage basis. The Scheme is limited to EWS households only.


·         Targets are fixed initially in the ratio of 75% for conversion of dry latrines with reference to   6 lacs dry latrines reported by the States so far and 25%  for provision of pour flush latrines to beneficiaries having no latrines


·        The scheme is funded in the following manner:-


·        Central Subsidy 75%, State Subsidy 15% and beneficiary share10%.


·        The upper ceiling cost of Rs. 10,000/- is provided for the complete unit of a two pit pour flush individual latrine with superstructure (excluding States falling in difficult / hilly areas).   For the States falling in the category of difficult and hilly areas, 25% extra cost is provided for each two pit pour flush latrine. The Scheme is limited to EWS households only and does not entail a loan component. The scheme is implemented by Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation directly. HUDCO will not be involved directly in the implementation of the Scheme. However, it will be utilized for providing technical support such as appraisal of project proposals submitted by the State Governments/UTs. HUDCO Headquarters will scrutinize the project proposals and submit for consideration of the Central Coordination Committee of the Ministry. The role of Central Coordination Committee will be to consider the   proposals submitted by HUDCO and release of funds. 


·        The States will select NGOs having adequate experience in this field who will be funded to a maximum extent of 15% over and above the total project cost to be borne by the Centre and States based on the ratio of 5:1 at different stages of implementation. 


·        1% of total central allocation is retained by the Ministry every year, to be utilized for MIS, Monitoring System, Capacity Building and IEC components. 



5.    Cumulative Programme Status

Till 31st March 2009 the total number of schemes sanctioned under the previous ILCS programme through HUDCO is 873 covering 2093 towns in 23 States/UTs. The cumulative project cost of the scheme is Rs.236834.20 lakhs for conversion & construction of 5020074 units.   The cumulative subsidy released as on 31.3.2009 is Rs. 35951.30. lakhs. As per the progress reported by the State nodal agencies 2828347 units have been completed. The total number of 60952 scavengers has been liberated through implementation of ILCS schemes and 911 towns have been declared as scavenger-free.


6.         Target


             The main target of the Revised ILCS Scheme is to convert six lakh dry latrines reported by the States by March 2010.



7.         Efforts of the Ministry


            The Ministry organized meetings in the identified five problem States viz. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Assam and Nagaland at different levels - State  Governments including the Nodal agencies, HUDCO Regional Offices,  major NGOs, social workers & others involved in the programme for direct feed back and evaluation of the ground difficulties.  Later on number of Regional Consultations were held covering the States for propagation of the revised programme guidelines, categorisation of the units as per RGI formats, requirements of Detailed Project Report, awareness about appraisal format and check list including details necessary in the Biometric Survey  for identification of beneficiaries in the programme, cost effective technological options etc.


8.                    Progress under the Revised Guidelines of ILCS Scheme upto 31st May 2009

           There was a budget provision of Rs. 150.00 crores during the financial year 2008-09 and a budget provision of Rs 60.00 crores for       the current financial year  (2009-10) under the Scheme. Within the last one year States of Andhra Pradesh, West Beng al,                     Nagaland    and Assam have stated that they have no dry latrines in their States.  Presently only four States namely Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Jammu and Kashmir have reported the existence of dry latrines.


8.1          The number of proposals sanctioned under the revised guidelines of ILCS during 2008-09 and 2009-10 (up to 31.5.2009) are as follows:


Sl. No

 Name of the State

No. of units for conversion

No. of  units for Construction






Jammu and Kashmir
















Uttar  Pradesh








West Bengal












8.2.         It is likely that the States of UP and Uttarakhand are likely to complete the conversion task by the end of this year


 9.             During the current financial year (2009-10) there is a budget provision of Rs. 60.00 crores which will be released on receipt of proposals from the State Governments.


10.          The revised ILCS Scheme envisages conversion of all existing dry latrines within a period of three years (2007-2010).  With the implementation of the Revised ILCS Scheme, it is expected that the system of manual scavengers will be eradicated from the country.